This is the last but one part of the article about the funding of the Dutch-German Church of Livorno (1862-1864). The previous two parts (see part 1 – see part 2) covered the donors who were also members of the Congregation and the ‘Livornese’ donors who were not members. This third part deals with the ‘foreign’ donors’ list which includes a large number of institutions, individuals and organizations in many parts of Europe and Italy (Florence, Milan, Genoa, Carrara…).

The first series of names on this list are related to the protestant organization Gustav Adolf Verein (now Gustav Adolf Werk) in several central european cities. It was named after King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden and it was founded in 1832 in Leipzig as a relief organization, mainly committed to helping protestant religious minorities in many countries and encouraging dialogue with other religions. The list continues with a number of congregations followed by German/Swiss evangelical societies, as well as some german Senate and Government institutions (Hamburg, Bremen and Hannover). Lastly, some cities where money was collected are listed, among which Rotterdam and Geneva which contributed generously.

The list shows also two significant donations: that made byPrincess Marianne of Orange-Nassau and that by the famous Jean Gabriel EYNARD-LULLIN (1775-1863), a poliedric French-Swiss merchant (who was apprenticed in Genoa), financer, tax collector in the Kingdom of Etruria, private advisor of Maria Luise of Bourbon and of Elisa Baciocchi, Napoleon’s sister. He was also private secretary of the genevan delegation to the Congress of Vienna (1814-15) and in 1824 was elected Director of the Discount Bank of Florence. Passionately involved in the Greek indepedence cause, he became the coordinator for the philo-hellenic committees in Europe, advisor to the newly born country and co-founder of the National Bank of Greece. Still not exhausted he started making daguerrotypes. among the first swiss to do so!

After these two substantial donations we find a myriad of small contributions from the whole florentine protestant community, followed by a considerable number of German and Swiss merchants established in England and all the main commercial capitals in central Europe. Finally a dense list of Swiss families from St. Gallen, most of them linked to other families in Livorno (Tobler, Fehr, Walser, etc…).

Of particular note is the name of Prof. RIEMANN (Gottingen), who I identified as the famous mathematician and physicist Bernhard RIEMANN (1826-1866). Son of a protestant pastor, he taught at Gottingen University and, after his marriage in 1862 with Elise KOCH, he had a daughter named Ida, born in Pisa in 1863, a few months before his death from tuberculosis in Selasca, a small village near Verbania, on Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy). The so called “Riemann Hypothesis (RH)” is a mathematical problem regarding prime numbers, the only one of the 10 Hilbert’s problems which, still unsolved after 150 years, has been included among the 7 problems of the Millenium. A great part of modern cryptographic theories will fail if the RH is demonstrated to be true. I think it’s very fascinating that Prof. Riemann contributed to the construction of the Dutch-German Church of Livorno, even if his contribution was mainly symbolic…

The total amount of the donations in this third section is about 25,000 Italian Lire (about 100,000 Euros). The terms “fl” and “thlr” in the table mean “florins” and “thalers”, two currencies in use in certain parts of Europe at that time.

Gustav Adolf Verein, Lubeck

145,00

SCHUNK, SOUCHAY & C., Manchester

255,00

                “              ,Leyden

1087,63

Fred. HUTH & C., London

505,31

             “    ,Leyden – fl. 56,9

411,12

Ed. WOOD, Porthill

100,00

      “     ,Darmstadt – fl. 53,10 I. C. IMTHURN, London

510,00

                “              , Leipzig

1846,70

Emil. MEYER, Bremen

100,00

      “   , Leipzig – thlr. 500,00

2609,76

I. STRUCKMANN, Osnabruck

40,00

       “  , Konigsberg – 100,00 Helmuth SCHWARTZE, London

100,00

                “    , Stettin – 50 F.lli KULENKAMPFF, London

403,00

                “      , Wien – 52,4 F. FEHR, Unterturkheim

500,00

                “          , Stuttgart

425,55

G. HAEMMERLE, Berdianska

100,00

Evangelic Congr. Dresden

55,80

FREESE, Magdeburg

5,00

Evangelic Society St Gallen

100,00

Antonio JAY, Leipzig

20,00

Evangelic Society Trogen

200,00

Gio. ZETTNER, Nurnberg

250,00

Consistory Evangelic Church Florence

152,60

Marquess ALA PONZONI, Milan

100,00

French Evang. Church Konigsberg

165,00

Gugl. HUFFER, Paris

400,00

Senate of  Hamburg

500,00

G. R. KNOPF, Nurnberg

106,00

Senate of Bremen

400,00

E. KLEIN, Nurnberg for anonymous

12,15

Royal Govt. of Hannover

500,00

Prof. RIEMANN, Gottingen

20,00

Collection in Schaffhausen

100,12

SCHMIDT, Hamburg

10,00

Collection in Basel

430,00

J. PUISSANT, Antwerp

20,00

Collection in Amsterdam

377,07

SCHEPELER, Frankfurt

651,54

Collection in Rotterdam

1380,38

F. TECKLEMBORG, Bremen

20,00

Collection in Den Haag

477,00

R. SCHOLLER, Duren

300,00

Collection in Magdeburg

201,15

RAUCH, Paris

100,00

Collection in Denmark by Mr. Dalgas

710,73

ELZE, Ljubljana

10,00

Collection in Osnabruck by Mr. Schwartze

689,98

SCHMUTZIGER, Aarau

100,00

Collection in Geneva

990,00

T. BOSSERT, Carrara

84,00

Princess Marianne of Holland

1000

R. HUHNERWADEL, Lensburg

200,30

Sig. EYNARD-LULLIN of Geneva

2000

F. GRUBER, Genoa

300,00

Sig. A. et L. DU FRESNE, of Florence

200,00

COURVOISIER, Chaux-de-Fond

300

JAVEL              of Florence

100,00

Colonn. GONZENBACH,       St. Gallen

100

Fam. KUBLI       of Florence

50,00

Presid. GONZENBACH,         St. Gallen

100

Carlo SCHMITZ  of Florence

100,00

WIRTH-SAND,     St. Gallen

100

Federigo WAGNIERE      “

50,00

WETTER-AEPLI,   St. Gallen

100

C. BERTHOUD               “

20,00

WETTER-JACOB  St. Gallen

100

O. P. WITAL                  “

20,00

SCHLAPFER-ZELLWEGER,     St. Gallen

100

L. GILLY                      “

20,00

Arnold KUNKLER, St. Gallen

20

E. F. de MANTEUFFEL    “

20,00

STOFFEL-STACHER,             St. Gallen

20

I. DE SASS                  “

20,00

SULZBERGER-HUBER,          St. Gallen

40

WILKEN                       “

5,00

August HUBER,                   St. Gallen

40

A. BERNER                  “

10,10

NAEPF-WEYERMANN,           St. Gallen

50

Dr. KIRCH                  “

5,00

STAHELIN-WILD, St. Gallen

50

DE KLINKOWSTROM      “

5,60

STEINMANN-WENIGER,     St. Gallen

40

N. N.                          “

10,00

FEHR-TOBLER, St. Gallen

40

H. CHAMPENDAL

5,60

Conrad SCHLAPFER,            St. Gallen

50

C. WITAL AUGIER & son of Florence

20,00

Julins FEHR,      St. Gallen

20

M. GLOSZ                    “

5,00

GRAFF-KAPPELER,  St. Gallen

50

T. SONNEMANN           “

10,00

ZELLWEGER-HIRSCHKOFER,  St. Gallen

20

KENSETT                     “

10,00

H. B. TONNER, St. Gallen

30

Mrs. P.a WAGNIERE      “

20,00

Amb. SCHLATTER,St. Gallen

40

Mrs. F. BEGRE             “

15,00

Mrs.  Ernestina TOBLER-FEHR, of Trogen

500

Mrs. E. FRAPPA            “

15,00

Mrs. Marie TOBLER

100

Messrs. A. ROSE              “

5,60

Messrs.  A. ZELLWEGER-WALSER

100

Messrs. F. BENOIT of Florence

5,60

T. T. STURZENEGGER KUNDIG

50

TOTAL

25205,39

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